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Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsulitis. It is a condition that causes stiffness and pain in the shoulder joint. The symptoms typically begin very gradually, worsen over time and then get resolved within one to three years.

The risk of developing frozen shoulder increases if you are recovering from a medical condition or surgery that prevents you from moving your arm.

Even after treatment, frozen shoulder can recur in the same shoulder and sometimes in the opposite shoulder.


The symptoms develop over some time and mainly in three stages:

Freezing stage

It is when any movement of your shoulder causes pain and the range of motion for your shoulder becomes limited.

Frozen stage

The pain in the first stage starts to subside during this stage. But the shoulder gets stiffer and using it becomes more difficult.

Thawing stage

In this stage, the range of motion improves and you can move your shoulder with some ease.

The pain of a frozen shoulder may worsen at night and sometimes it will disturb your sleep.


To understand the causes, we should first look at the structure of a shoulder joint. The bones, ligaments and tendons that make the shoulder joint are encased in a capsule of connective tissue. Due to various reasons, this capsule may get thickened and tightens around the shoulder joint, restricting its movement.

Though doctors are not sure why this happens, it is more likely to happen in people who have chronic ailments like diabetes or those who were immobilized due to surgery or an arm fracture.


Certain factors increase your risk of getting frozen shoulder. People who are forty and over, especially women are more likely to have frozen shoulder. Those who have been immobilized due to rotator cuff injury, broken arm, stroke or surgeries are also prone to developed the condition. If you suffer from certain diseases like diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis and Parkinson’s disease are also at risk of developing frozen shoulder.


Treatment for frozen shoulder involves a range of exercises and at times corticosteroids are given. Sometimes doctors administer numbing medications which get injected into the joint capsule. In a small number of cases, arthroscopic surgery may be performed to loosen the joint capsule to enable it to move freely.


Frozen shoulder may be prevented especially if you are recovering from stroke or surgery by asking your doctor to guide you about exercises you can do to maintain the motion in your shoulder joint.


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Dandruff: What does an itchy scalp tell you?

Dandruff: What does an itchy scalp tell you?

Dandruff usually declares itself with the appearance of flakes. At the same time, itching will be present. So, does a scratchy scalp try to tell you something more? Let us see what does it indicate and how to treat it.

Symptoms of dandruff

Dandruff symptoms include flakes and   an itchy scaly scalp. The flakes are white and oily which accumulate in the hair and fall on to the shoulders when you comb your hair or move the hair. The symptoms get worse in winter months, especially when the air is dry.

The symptoms may occur due to various reasons including irritated and oily skin, not shampooing the hair for long causing the skin cells to accumulate and create flakes, due to the presence of yeast called malassezia that causes excess skin cell growth or due to the use of unsuitable personal care products which may cause dermatitis that make the scalp red and itchy.

Surprisingly, men are more prone to dandruff than women. People who more oil in the hair or those suffering from certain diseases are at higher risk. Symptoms also occur more frequently during puberty, but dandruff can develop at any age.

Steps to prevent scaly and itchy scalp

Check on your shampoo

Itchy scalp may be able to get some relief by using an OTC shampoo that are advertised as formulated to help control dandruff. But getting the right one may take some trial and error. If you are not sure, ask your doctor for a suggestion. You may need to use a special shampoo or medicated shampoo to match your hair and get your dandruff under control.


You know that a dry scalp always has a tendency to flake and itch, but usually, the flakes with dry skin are smaller and less oily. Once you restore moisture to the scalp, it can decrease the itchiness. For moisturizing, you may use coconut oil which also has antibacterial properties, making it the right natural choice for fighting dryness.

Maintain good hygiene

Regular shampooing can keep oils at bay, helping treat dandruff symptoms. You can also resist the urge to scratch your scalp. The itchiness is mainly caused due to the irritation from dandruff, but scratching will only lead to an increase in irritation.


Tackle your stress and relax

Stress is seen to scale up the dandruff attack in some individuals. Malassezia may not occur due to scalp, but it can thrive when your immune system is weak due to stress.  You can relax, take a restorative walk or practice yoga and find an escape from stressful events to prevent dandruff.

Consult your doctor

The best thing is that dandruff is one condition which can be effectively treated with OTC shampoos and certain lifestyle measures. When in doubt or when you are not able to control the flakes and itichiness, go ahead and meet your doctor. Your doctor will examine thoroughly and prescribe the right shampoo and medications.


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Hair is one distinguishing feature that adds value to the face of any woman. It is a part of her beauty and personality. The hair on her head is something that she can customize and experiment in endless ways.

This is not the same for hair at other places, which may not be very welcome. The hair on our body is something that nature has bestowed and at best we can do is remove it if not required. Above all, if this hair appears in unwanted places, it becomes a challenge.

Of all the places, if hair appears on the chin, then it causes considerable embarrassment. The chin is really a tricky place because, more often, you won’t notice it unless you strain your neck and push your head back. The chin hair is nothing abnormal because most of us get it at least once in our life.

What is Hirsutism?

Some stray chin hair may occasionally appear, which may be normal, but if the frequency and number of hair are more then, it is called Hirsutism. This is not a severe condition in any way, but it may be an indication of an underlying health condition. So, it is required to check it out.

There are many reasons for the appearance of chin hair and some of them are listed below.

The Gene

Chin hair may grow due to the influence of your genetic makeup. So the Hirsutism is mostly hereditary. If your grandmother, mother, or aunts had chin hair, likely, you will also get it. Surprisingly this is seen mainly in South Asia, the Mediterranean and the Middle East.

Hormonal Imbalances

Another reason for Hirsutism is associated with unusually higher levels of androgen or male hormones in some females.  Female bodies do produce some amount of male hormones, but the levels are low and so no male charesteristics surface. But sometimes higher amounts are produced, resulting in conditions like chin hair, deeper voice and smaller breasts in women.

Aging Process

After the stages of puberty and pregnancy, it is the menopause stage that affects women the most. Causing rare ups and down in the hormonal levels. Normally the amount of estrogen in the body decreases. It is during this period that more changes like chin hair appears.

PCOS Problems

PCO or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome which again occurs due to hormonal imbalance is another crucial reason for male characteristics to appear. The condition causes irregular periods, weight gain, fertility issues etc. due to cyst formation in the ovaries, which can lead to Hirsutism.

Cushing Syndrome

Excess amount of stress hormone cortisol causes considerable changes. The changes manifest through different organs and tissues and together it is called as Cushing syndrome. Chin hair growth is one such effect.


Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia is a birth-related deficiency of vital enzymes. These enzymes are needed for sex steroid secretion from the adrenal glands. The lack of these enzymes results in male hormone secretion, which causes the development of primary and secondary sexual charecteristics like chin hair.


Removing chin hair is the best option. It is done using a plucker, through waxing or by bleaching etc. Epilators and laser treatment are an advanced option. Hormonal imbalance can be tackled with lifestyle changes or in advanced cases through medical remedies.


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Many of us like to have cold things to eat and drink, especially during hot summer days. Yet very often after consuming these cold things, you get a toothache, cold or sometimes a sharp headache. The brief, stabbing headaches that happen when you eat, drink or inhale something cold is called Ice-cream headache.

Ice-cream headache is also known as cold stimulus headaches. These headaches also occur when you expose your head to cold temperatures, such as diving into a pool of ice-cold water.

The most heartening part is that most of these ice-cream headaches last only for a short period of time.

Symptoms of an ice-cream headache

It is easy to know when you get an attack of an ice-cream headache. The symptoms include sharp, stabbing pain in the forehead. The pain peaks in about 20 to 60 seconds after it begins and then slowly goes away within the same time. Overall the pain does not last more than five minutes.

What causes Ice-cream headache?

When a person Exposes to extreme cold or has something cold to eat or drink suddenly, the person may get a headache. When the cold air or cold substances moves across the roof of the mouth and the back of the throat, it triggers the headache. Though the exact mechanism that causes the pain is not known.

There is a theory regarding ice-cream headache going around, which terms that the sudden cold sensation alters the blood flow in the nervous system, which causes a brief headache. This may be due to the body’s mechanism to prevent loss of heat from the body by constriction of the blood vessels and then relaxing again to let Blood flow again. That is why the pain goes away once the body adapts to the temperature change.

Blood vessels constrict to prevent the loss of body heat and then relax again to let blood flow rise, resulting in a burst of pain that goes away once the body adapts to the temperature change.

What are the risk factors?

Ice-cream headaches can affect anybody, regardless of age or gender. It affects those who are prone to consume colder things and those who live or travel in colder climates.

How to prevent ice-cream headache?

We all know that extreme cold triggers the condition, so if you avoid having cold food and drinks as well as cold weather or keep away cold by wearing necessary warm clothing, you can prevent ice-cream headaches.

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Many people have problems with their voice due to many reasons. Usually, ENT doctors and speech-language pathologists are specialists who handle various voice disorders.

The voice disorders depending on the causes are treated effectively with medications, voice therapy and finally surgery if needed.

What is a voice box?

Voicebox (larynx) in humans consit of cartilage, muscle and mucous membranes. It is located at the top of the windpipe (trachea) and at the base of the tongue.

Sound is generated when the vocal cords vibrate. The vibration is produced when air moves through the larynx, bringing the vocal cords closer together. The vocal cords also close the voice box when you swallow, preventing food or liquid entering the windpipe.

What causes voice disorder?

Due to infection or various other reasons, sometimes the vocal cords get inflamed, develop some growths or become paralyzed and don’t work properly. This is known as a voice disorder.

What are the common voice disorders?

There are many types of voice disorders based on the location and the cause of the disorder.

Laryngitis or inflammation of the vocal cords due to overuse, irritation or infection, neurological voice disorders, polyps, nodules or cysts in the vocal cords, precancerous and cancerous lesions and vocal cord paralysis are the different kinds of voice disorders.

What are the risk factors for voice disorders?

Voice disorder may be caused due to physical condition, one’s habits and environmental conditions. The risk factors thus include age, alcohol use, allergies, gastrointestinal reflux, upper respiratory infection, neurological disorders, stress, trauma of the front of the neck, continuous screaming, smoking, throat cancer, dehydration, throid problems and voice misuse of any other kind.

How is voice disorder diagnosed?

Once you consult your doctor with your voice problem, you will be first subjected to a detailed examination, including questions about your condition. The doctor will either use a mirror inserted in the mouth or a flexible laryngoscope, which is inserted through your nose to examine the condition of your throat. The latest equipment is a video stroboscope with a camera and light attached to it to study your throat.

Additionally the doctor may further subject you to a sound (acoustic) analysis using a computer to measure the irregularities of sound. An advanced method like laryngeal elllectromyography will be taken if available to study the electric currents in your voice box muscles.

After obtaining the resulttts of your tests, your doctor will finally conclude whether you have a voice disorder and what is the next step in treatment.

What are the treatments for voice disorders?

Depending on the diagnosis of your voice disorder, the doctor my advise various treatments, including rest for your vocal cords, intake of fluids and a speech therapist training you to use your voice effectively. If an allergy is a cause for your voice problem, then appropriate allergy treatment will be recommended.

If you smoke, your doctor will ask you to stop the habit. The doctor will also prescribe medicines to treat causes like inflammation, gastroesophageal reflux and to halt any growth in the voice box.

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