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DOES DIABETES MELLITUS AFFECT THE SKIN?

Diabetic patients should always be aware of the many effects it causes on human body. One such affliction is the skin disease that diabetes mellitus causes rampantly. When a diabetic patient discovers abnormality on the skin it is better to consult a doctor and start a treatment otherwise it will be very difficult to cure later. In most cases skin disease in diabetes can be managed by early diagnosis and treatment.

Some of the more widespread skin diseases in diabetic patients are discussed here.

Vitiligo

This is a skin condition that affects those people with type 1 Diabetes than type 2 Diabetes. With Vitiligo the pigments that make skin color get destroyed or the special pigment cells in the body are destroyed. These leaves patches of depigmented skin lesion. Vitiligo affects the whole body including chest, abdomen, face, around the mouth, and eyelids. Topical steroids and micro-pigmentation or tattooing the discoloured area are the treatment.

Diabetic Dermopathy

This is also called as shin spots. The skin condition develops due to the changes in the blood vessels that supply the skin. The dermopathy appears as shiny round or oval lesions of thin skin over the front lower parts of the lower legs. The patches do not hurt but rarely they can be itchy and cause burning. Usually medical treatment is not necessary.

Digital Sclerosis

Digital sclerosis is a condition in which the skin on the toes, fingers and hands become thick and waxy. There can be a certain stiffness of the finger joints also. The only treatment is to get the sugar levels back under control. Lotions and creams can help soften the skin.

Diabetic blisters

In some rare cases, people with diabetes may develop blisters on the skin that resembles burn blisters. The blisters are commonly seen on the fingers, hands, toes, feet, legs or forearms. Diabetic blisters are generally painless and heal on their own. This skin problem occurs in people who have uncontrolled diabetes and diabetic neuropathy.

Bacterial & Fungal Infections

Patients with diabetes are prone to bacterial and fungal infection of the skin because bacteria and fungi feed on sugar. Bacteria like Staphylococcus are more common and serious in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. The bacterial infection can result in boils at hair follicles. Other infections like styes which occur in the eyelids and nail infection are common. The rampant fungal infection occurs mostly in the toes and in-between toes with itchy rashes. The common fungal infections are jock itch (on genitals and crevices) athlete’s foot (inbetween toes) and ring worm.

How to control diabetic skin Infection?

High blood sugar makes the immune cells slow and sluggish, that is why it is harder to fight an infection once it takes hold. Prevention is important in skin care. Check the skin daily for injury, cuts or scrapes. Eating healthy food alone can’t cure skin problems; keeping blood sugar under control is the best option. Avoid extreme temperatures when you have diabetes. Diabetes can cause nerve damage called neuropathy, where you can lose the feeling in your hands and feet and may not realize pain when you are hurt. Frequent foot soaks may be recommended for calluses and dry skin but when you soak and don’t dry properly it causes infection between toes and on the nails due to fungal attack. Never cut calluses by yourself. Sometimes a skin problem is the first sign of diabetes.

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WHAT IS SWELLING OF THE PROSTATE GLAND OR PROSTATITIS?

Prostate gland usually gets enlarged in older men. The prostate gland enlargement is also called prostatic hyperplasia. The main problem with prostate gland enlargement is that it causes difficulty in passing urine. Symptoms in prostate gland enlargement are often mild and overtime may even improve. If the symptoms turn out to be troublesome then you may need surgical intervention or medicines to cure it.

Among leading hospitals for prostate enlargement treatment Annai Arul Hospital stand with its advanced facilities for prostate treatment including surgery.

What is a Prostate?

The prostate gland is found in men and lies just beneath the bladder. It is normally the size of a chestnut.  The tube that carries urine from the bladder runs through the prostate. The prostates function is to produce the fluid that protects and enriches the sperm. The prostate has a tendency to slowly start enlarging after the age of 50 and by the age of 90 most men have an enlarged prostate.

How to find Prostate Enlargement?

When the prostate enlargement happens it slowly narrows down the urethra. This will partially affect the passage of urine. At this state the symptoms will include:

Poor streaming – The flow of urine is weak and it takes a long while to empty the bladder

Feeling Hesitant – When you are about to urinate you will have to wait for some time

Dribble Effect – At the end of the passing urine, the flow gets really slow and starts dribbling

Unsatisfactory Emptying – Even after urinating the feeling of not quite emptied bladder

Irritable Sensation – The enlarged prostate causes irritation in the bladder and indicates enlargement

Mostly the symptoms of enlargement are mild at the beginning but over months and years the symptoms become more troublesome and severe, it is at this juncture that complications develop in rare cases.

What are treatment options for PE?

There is no treatment option that is likely to clear all symptoms and improve the condition fairly except waiting and watching in most of the cases. The treatments are carried out based on how desperate is the urine blockage and how bothersome is your life due to prostate enlargement.

Medicines

The treatment of prostate enlargement largely depends on the condition of your prostate enlargement and how much of trouble it is giving. If there is not much symptoms then it is best to wait and watch. Two groups of medicines are prescribed usually the alpha – blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. But is seen that medicines do not cure the problem nor do they make the symptoms go away completely. The only advantage being that medicine eases the body and various symptoms.

Surgery

Another option in prostate treatment is removal of the prostate or surgery. This is an option in cases where the symptoms get out of control and seems to have no result with medicines. In the surgery the central part alone of the prostate is removed which creates a channel for the urine to flow freely. Meanwhile another part is left behind. If there is a case of prostate cancer then the procedure involves total removal of the troublesome prostate. The surgical methods involve transurethral Resection, open prostatectomy and laser prostatectomy.

If you have the symptoms for prostate enlargement and still you are waiting it is always advisable to visit the Speciality Urology Department of Annai Arul Hospital to find a proper solution for prostate problems.

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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteoporosis literally means “porous bones”. It is known that our bones remain strongest till the age of 30 and thereafter it begins to lose its density. Millions of people have osteoporosis which is more than the normal bone loss, which increases the risk of facture and injury. Mostly women over 50 are prone to osteoporosis and will undergo a fracture in their lifetime.

What are the symptoms?

Mostly people will not realize they have osteoporosis until they have an accident and fracture their bones or they will have a change in posture as years go by indicating the onset of osteoporosis. Many patients have significant bone loss even without realizing it for many years. Some symptoms include severe back pain, severe change in posture etc.

What causes osteoporosis?

Take into consideration our bones which are constantly being rebuilt all along our lifetime and this is done with the help of collagen a protein in our body which provides the basic framework and calcium phosphate which is a mineral that hardens the bones. What happens is that, as we age we lose more bone than is replaced. Especially in women this loss is greatest after menopause and leads to falls and fractures.

What are the risk factors?

There are several risk factors that are beyond human control. It is observed that those women who are thin and have small frames are more likely to develop osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is also dependent on family history or heredity and the ethnicity of the person. It is more common in Asians and Whites rather than Africans and Hispanics. Some conditions like type 1 diabetes, IBS, rheumatoid arthritis and hormonal imbalance also are linked to bone loss.

Controllable risk factors

A lifestyle involving smoking, excess drinking, a sedentary lifestyle and a diet low in calcium and vitamin D make a person more vulnerable to osteoporosis. Some medications including corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory medicines for treating asthma increase the risk of bone loss. Some eating disorder like anorexia and bulimia can also affect the bone health.

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Osteoporosis is easily detected in a patient by using certain tests. The doctor will first recommend a bone mineral density test if the patient is susceptible to osteoporosis or

  • Patient is over 50 years and has broken a bone
  • If the patient is a women over 65 and a man over 70
  • It is a women in menopause or over menopause
  • If it is a man over 50-69 years with risk factors

Doctors may also recommend DXA or low dose X-rays to measure the bone density in the hip and spine which will hardly take any time.

What are the treatments for osteoporosis?

After osteoporosis has been properly diagnosed the doctor will start you on a bone-boosting medicine or for women recommend a hormonal replacement treatment where estrogen is replaced using estrogen agents. Since this is a high risk medicine it is used in controlled measures and not usually prescribed. Today biological alternatives in the form of injections are available to be administered twice a year but this has its own side effects and should be used with discretion.


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WHO SHOULD GO FOR HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY?

Wear and Tear of the joint surface (Articular Cartilage) is called osteoarthritis. The weight bearing joints like hip, knee are more prone to be affected.

Today Chennai has some of the leading orthopedic doctors and medical facilities for hip replacement surgery. There are dedicated clinics set up by Annai Arul Hospital to treat hip and joint problems and take up surgery if required.

The doctors or orthopedic specialist will first suggest certain walking aids like crutches along with medication and physio therapy. More often these therapies can best control the pain for some time but don not cure the actual. Hip replacement may be the only option with persistent pain and disability.

Who should have replacement?

Previously surgery was reserved for people over 65 years of age considering the life expectancy of the patient and implant to avoid revision. But now with the advent of better implant for revision. This criteria no longer holds true. Surgery is done for younger patient to improve the quality of life.

More important than the age factor is the health and activity of the person that determines the success of hip replacement.
Who should avoid hip replacement?

There are no absolute contraindications certain condition with muscle weakness is likely to increase the increase risk of dislocation and early Wear and Tear. Your doctor will be able to lay down the various pros and cons. So that you can take a informed decision about the procedure.

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